Scientific evidence on Nutrition

Although ketogenic and low-carbohydrate diets are considered controversial by some health professionals, there is now high-quality evidence to support their routine use for weight loss and certain metabolic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and some forms of dyslipidemia. There is also preliminary evidence for its use in other conditions.

There is scientifically substantiated evidence that natural saturated fats are not a health hazard; warnings about the health hazards of red meat are based on weak evidence; low-fat diets do not appear to have any special health or weight benefits beyond those of a low-carbohydrate diet.

Here are some notable studies from the large amunt of scientific data that support and clarify many myths we have about food:

  1. The Lancet. Diabetes and Endocrinology 2015: Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis [strong evidence]
  2. Nutrition Reviews 2019: Effects of Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [strong evidence]
  3. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 2018: LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review of the current literature
  4. Cochrane 24.08.2017: Whole grain cereals for cardiovascular disease
  5. Annals of Internal Medicine 2019: Effect of lower versus higher red meat intake on cardiometabolic and cancer outcomes: A systematic review of randomized trials [strong evidence]
  6. Book: Proteins, Pathologies and Politics: Dietary Innovation and Disease from the Nineteenth Century. 2018 : Chapter 7 – From John Yudkin to Jamie Oliver: A Short but Sweet History on the War against Sugar. Rachel Meach.
  7. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Nov. Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research. A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents
  8. British Medical Journal 2019: WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: time for a new approach? [overview article; ungraded evidence]
  9. Business Insider 20.September 2018: Here’s What Fruits And Vegetables Looked Like Before We Domesticated Them.]
  10. Harvard Health Publishing. 6.01.2020: Glycemic index for 60+ foods. Measuring carbohydrate effects can help glucose management.
  11. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement. 24.Sep 2015
  12. Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review. 12. Jun 2016
  13. Effect of Lower Versus Higher Red Meat Intake on Cardiometabolic and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials. 19. Nov 2019
  14. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice. 15. Sep 2014
  15. Review Dermatoendocrinol 2016.:The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016
  16. Skin Cancer Report 2020:
  17. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2014 Dec. Cancer, sunlight and vitamin D
  18. JIntern Med, 2016 Oct. Avoidance of Sun Exposure as a Risk Factor for Major Causes of Death: A Competing Risk Analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden Cohort

Bibliographic References

  • Each Organ Has a Unique Metabolic Profile – Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002).
  • Multi-dimensional roles of ketone bodies in fuel metabolism, signaling, and therapeutics – Puchalska P, Crawford PA (2017).
  • Preferential Utilization of Ketone Bodies in the Brain and Lung of Newborn Rats – Y Y Yeh, P M SheehanY Y Yeh, P M Sheehan (1985).
  • Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury – Hayden White and Balasubramanian Venkatesh (2011).
  • Glycemic Instability and Spontaneous Energy Intake: Association With Knowledge-Based Work – Jean-Philippe Chaput , Vicky Drapeau, Paul Poirier, Normand Teasdale, Angelo Tremblay (2008).
  • Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance – Andrew J. Murray, Nicholas S. Knight, Mark A. Cole,,3 Lowri E. Cochlin, Emma Carter, Kirill Tchabanenko,4 Tica Pichulik, Melanie K. Gulston, Helen J. Atherton,* Marie A. Schroeder,* Robert M. J. Deacon, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, M. Todd King, Robert Pawlosky, J. Nicholas P. Rawlins, Damian J. Tyler, Julian L. Griffin, Jeremy Robertson, Richard L. Veech, and Kieran Clarke (2016).
  • Ketones Keep Neurons Alive– Carl E Stafstrom (2006).
  • Glucose metabolism following human traumatic brain injury: methods of assessment and pathophysiological findings – Ibrahim Jalloh,corresponding author Keri L. H. Carpenter, Adel Helmy, T. Adrian Carpenter, David K. Menon, and Peter J. Hutchinson (2015).
  • The Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review – Alexandre McDougall 1, Mark Bayley 2, Sarah Ep Munce (2018).
  • Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer’s disease – Author links open overlay panelMatthew K.TaylorabDebra K.SullivanabJonathan D.MahnkenacJeffrey M.BurnsadeRussell H.Swerdlowadef (2018).
  • Sugar Addiction: From Evolution to Revolution – Wiss DA, Avena N, Rada P. (2018).

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